John Chamberlain was born in 1927 in Rochester, Indiana. He grew up in Chicago and, after serving in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946, he attended the Art Institute of Chicago in the early 1950s. In 1955 and 1956, Chamberlain studied and taught sculpture at Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina. He moved to New York in 1956 and the following year made Shortstop, his first sculpture incorporating scrap metal from cars. Chamberlain’s first major solo show was presented at the Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, in 1960. His work was included in the Art of Assemblage exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1961, and he began showing at Leo Castelli’s New York gallery in 1962. Chamberlain had his first retrospective in 1971 at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, held a second retrospective in 1986. In 2012, the Guggenheim Museum presented another retrospective that included seventeen works from Dia’s collection. Chamberlain has received numerous honors, including the Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture and the Lifetime Achievement Award in Contemporary Sculpture from the International Sculpture Center, Washington, DC (both 1993); the Gold Medal from the National Arts Club, New York (1997); and the Distinction in Sculpture award from the Sculpture Center, New York (1999). John Chamberlain died in December 2011 in New York City.